DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TRIAZOLE AND PYRETROID PESTICDES IN MUSTARD GREENS (Brassicajuncea)

Nguyễn Đăng Giáng Châu

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26459/hueuni-jns.v126i1C.4278

Abstract


Abstract

            Triazole and pyrethroid are two of the most commonly used pesticides in vegetable cultivation recently. In this study, a multi-residue analytical method employing gas chromatography – mass spectromety (GC-MS) technique was successfully developed for quantification of two triazole fungicides including propiconaozle and difenoconazole and on pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin (including 04 isomeres) in mustard greens. The GC-MS running program performed good separation, low detection limit and short analysis time (24 minutes). Target compounds in mustard green sample were ultrasonically extracted in 15 minutes by 60 mL acetone, followed by clean-up steps using solid phase extraction of packed activated carbon column with 40 mL acetone:toluene (v:v, 1:1) for elutions, and florisil cartridge with an elution mixture of 15 mL acetone:n-hexane (v:v, 1:5). The method was validated before applying for a preliminary screening of triazole and pyrethroid residue levels in mustard greens collected in Phu Yen Province, Vietnam.

Keywords: triazole, pyrethroid, residues in vegetables, GC-MS


References


Altieri MA and Gliessman SR, Effects of plant diversity on the density and herbivory of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae Goez, in California collard (Brassica oleracea) cropping systems, Crop Protection (1983), 2:497-501.

Hamey PY and Harris CA, The variation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables and the associated assessment of risk, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (1999), 30:34-41.

Juraske R, Mutel CL, Stoessel F, Hellweg S, Life cycle human toxicity assessment of pesticides: Comparing fruit and vegetable diets in Switzerland and the United States, Chemosphere (2009), 77:939–945.

Ikpesu TO and Ariyo AB, Health implication of excessive use and abuse of pesticides by the rural dwellers in developing countries: the need for awareness, Greener Journal of Environment Management and Public Safety (2013), 2(5):180-188.

Lozowicka B, Jankowska M, Kaczynski P, Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruit from Poland and health risk assessment, Agricultural Sciences (2012), 4(5B):106-111.

. Peyton LR, Gallagher S, Hashemzadeh M, Triazole antifungals: a review, Drugs Today (2015) 51(12):705-18. doi: 10.1358/dot.2015.51.12.2421058.

Thatheyus AJ, Selvam DG, Synthetic Pyrethroids: Toxicity and Biodegradation, Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences (2013) 1 (3):33-36. doi: 10.12691/aees-1-3-2.

. Hoai PM, Sebesvari Z, Minh TB, Viet PH, Renaud FG, Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes. Environmental Pollution (2011), 159: 3344–3350.

Chau NDG, Quang HM, Long HT, Study on gas chromatographic quantification of currently used pesticides in onion leaves, Analytica Conference proceeding 2017: 221 – 230.

IUPAC (International of pure and applied chemistry) (2009). Available: http://sitem. herts.ac.uk/aeru/iupac/index.htm

WHO (World Health Organization), The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification 2009, Geneva: International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS) & World Health Organization (WHO) (2010). Available: http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/pesticides_hazard_2009.pdf.

IPCS (International Programme on Chemical Safety), Inventory of IPCS and other WHO pesticide evaluations and summary of toxicological evaluations, Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) through 2009 (2009). Available: http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/jmpr/pesticide_inventory_edition10.pdf

European Food Safety Authority, Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs) for propiconazole according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC) No 396/20051, EFSA Journal (2015), 13(1):3975.

Codexalimentarius, Pesticide Residues in Food and Feed (2016). Available: http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/standards/pestres/pesticides/en/.

Munawar A and Syed WH, Quantification of pesticide residues in vegetables by different chromatographic techniques, Journal of Chromatograph Separattion Techniques (2013), 4(8). Doi: 10.4172/2157-7064.1000200.

Akoto O, Andoh H, Darko G, Eshun K, Osei-Fosu P, Health risk assessment of pesticides residue in maize and cowpea from Ejura, Ghana, Chemosphere (2013), 92(1):67-73.